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Shoe covers are constructed from a variety of materials based on the desired protection level and the type of threats faced by the wearer. Both natural and synthetic materials are used successfully in both shoe and boot covers. Your choices should be based on the level of protective shoe covers you should use and your personal comfort.
Spunbond polypropylene makes an excellent medical shoe cover that is strong, skid-resistant, and disposable. This synthetic weave can take punishment and stay in place. A variant, poly-coated polypropylene, is excellent to protect you against spills and biohazards, while keeping you against slippage on a wet floor.
Waterproof barrier protection (WBP) is an interesting space age material that protects up to 99% against non-toxic liquids. Keep your shoes dry while working in the laboratory or industrial setting.
Tyvek, from DuPont, is the amazing material used for everything from U.S. Postal Service priority envelopes to protective siding on buildings to protective apparel. They also offer protective shoe covers that protect against many forms of dry hazards and particulates (dust, pollen, wood shavings, etc.) for footwear.
Plastic shoe covers are used for excellent liquid protection although most of the type of plastic material used is normally polypropylene. The advantage of using plastic is the ability to tailor the weight of this synthetic from ultra lightweight to super heavy duty, depending on the requirements of your job. Cost is either low or at worst reasonable so this substance is attractive to high volume users like hospitals and laboratories.